GP Essay Outline: Nowadays, the pleasures of reading can never ...

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Reading good books is important during the formative years of one's development.

Fascismis now clearly defined not only as a regime but as a doctrine. Thismeans that Fascism, exercising its criticalfaculties on itself and on others, has studied from itsown special standpoint and judged by its own standards all the problemsaffecting the material and intellectual interestsnow causing such grave anxiety to the nations of the world,and is ready to deal with them by its own policies.REJECTION OF PACIFISMFirst of all, as regards the future development of mankind, and quite apart from all present political considerations. Fascism does not, generally speaking, believe in the possibility or utility of perpetual peace. It therefore discards pacifism as a cloak for cowardly supine renunciation in contradistinction to self-sacrifice. War alone keys up all human energies to their maximum tension and sets the seal of nobility on those peoples who have the courage to face it. All other tests are substitutes which never place a man face to face with himself before the alternative of life or death. Therefore all doctrines which postulate peace at all costs are incompatible with Fascism. Equally foreign to the spirit of Fascism, even if accepted as useful in meeting special political situations -- are all internationalistic or League superstructures which, as history shows, crumble to the ground whenever the heart of nations is deeply stirred by sentimental, idealistic or practical considerations. Fascism carries this anti-pacifistic attitude into the life of the individual. " I don't care a damn „ (me ne frego) - the proud motto of the fighting squads scrawled by a wounded man on his bandages, is not only an act of philosophic stoicism, it sums up a doctrine which is not merely political: it is evidence of a fighting spirit which accepts all risks. It signifies new style of Italian life. The Fascist accepts and loves life; he rejects and despises suicide as cowardly. Life as he understands it means duty, elevation, conquest; life must be lofty and full, it must be lived for oneself but above all for others, both near bye and far off, present and future. The population policy of the regime is the consequence of these premises. The Fascist loves his neighbor, but the word neighbor does not stand for some vague and unseizable conception. Love of one's neighbor does not exclude necessary educational severity; still less does it exclude differentiation and rank. Fascism will have nothing to do with universal embraces; as a member of the community of nations it looks other peoples straight in the eyes; it is vigilant and on its guard; it follows others in all their manifestations and notes any changes in their interests; and it does not allow itself to be deceived by mutable and fallacious appearances.

Short Essay on the Pleasures of Reading

You are the 8th person I just looked up that told me why reading is really important.

It is also consistent with non-hedonistic interpretations of Mill, as it could permit one to choose a smaller quantity of one pleasure instead of a larger quantity of another in the same "units," as Riley puts it. However, the fact that the capacity reading is consist with a non-hedonist approach does not detract from the fact that it is consistent with nearly every version of hedonism. The author thanks an anonymous reviewer for encouraging him to address this point.

Studies in the History of Ethics: Troy Booher

First, the standard reading results in a lexical ordering of pleasures, as no amount of a lower pleasure could ever trump even a tiny amount of a higher pleasure. For example, in no case can the mild physical enjoyment of eating a hamburger trump the enjoyment of reciting Homer. This categorical result (which conjures images of Kant) cuts against Mill's modest goal of providing rules of thumb, or as Daniel Jacobson recently put it, a "general approach to ethics." The problems are magnified if one takes Mill at his word when he states that "[t]o do as one would be done by, and to love one's neighbour as oneself, constitutes the ideal perfection of utilitarian morality." (Utilitarianism (II, 18) While it may be merely counterintuitive that in no case can a large quantity of lower pleasure morally trump a tiny quantity of higher pleasure, it becomes entirely unworkable to require one to forego all lower pleasures whenever doing otherwise would cause someone else to enjoy a reduced quantity of higher pleasure. A basic cannon of interpretation requires placing a high evidentiary burden on any reading with such results.

This Is Why Poor People's Bad Decisions Make Perfect …

Second, the standard reading appears to commit Mill to making a metaphysical distinction between types of pleasures based upon their different qualities. Such a reading, however, would commit Mill to recognizing mysterious inherent qualities to pleasures, a metaphysical position Mill is unlikely to have taken.

The perils and pleasures of long-running fantasy series

This paper advances an alternative reading of Mill that avoids both of these problems while remaining faithful to Mill's texts. The standard reading interprets Mill's test for higher pleasure as comparing two kinds of pleasure. This is incorrect. Mill's test for higher pleasure is intended to compare the capacity to experience one pleasure with any quantity of second pleasure that one could experience in virtue of having the capacity to experience the second pleasure. Properly understood, Mill's test makes an epistemological and normative distinction between pleasures, not a metaphysical one. Once Mill's test is understood properly, it becomes apparent that Mill is committed neither to a lexical ordering of pleasures nor to recognizing inherent qualities in pleasures. Call this the "capacity reading."