Disputatorium & Examinatorium: 1771/72-1772/73, 1773/74.

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Examinatorium & Repetitorium: 1774.

Kant’s lectures on education have proved to be exceptionally popular, having been translated into more languages than any of his other notes. And yet we are lacking even a hint of any student notes. All that exists is the book that Rink edited and published, presumably based on a collection of Kant’s own scattered notes; it is unclear whether Rink included all of this, and how he decided on an arrangement. We can deduce that Kant, in his old age, merely allowed Rink to pursue this publishing project (Rink never says that Kant asked him to do it, and Rink surely would have mentioned this had the facts permitted it). It is also unknown whether Rink had ever heard the lectures; if he had, it would have been WS 1786/87, the last semester that Kant lectured on pedagogy.


Perceptual input must be , i.e.

Repetitorium: 1775/76, 1776, 1777 through 1780, 1781 through 1782/83, 1783/84 through 1787.

Kant holds that there is no actual problem in explaining the irrationality in the case of hypothetical imperatives. As he perceives it, to take up an end is to condition oneself to be the cause of achieve it. The idea of an individual being the cause its achievement encompasses the idea of an individual doing what is required. In other words, one cannot rationally perceive himself as the cause fail to think of himself as taking the required steps. To will the end is to will the vital means (417). To quote Kant “it is one and the same thing to conceive of something as an effect that is possible in a certain way through me and to conceive of myself as acting in the same way with regard to the aforesaid effect.”


The supreme rational expression of this is science.

Similarly, Kant can be a phenomenal with science yet simultaneously allow for , and that in a way that will not be entirely explicable to us -- a virtue when the very idea of a rational and purposive free will, and not just arbitrary choices, has involved obscurities that no one has been able to resolve.

In his course announcement for SS 1757 , Kant wrote that:

Thus, the tragic childhood of the defendant, however touching and understandable, cannot excuse crimes committed in full knowledge of their significance.

[presumably SS 1756] [AA 2:4]

Kant's approach is also of comparative interest because of the similar ancient philosophical distinction between conditioned realities, which mostly means the world of experience, and unconditioned realities ("unconditioned "), which interestingly include, not only the sphere of salvation, , but also , which of course for Kant was a form imposed on experience by the mind.

In his course announcement for SS 1758 :

Of course, if we look beyond Kant’s lectures for material, another obvious source is Kant’s own (1766) , where his discussion on the differences in character between the sexes, the races, and the nations in the 3rd and 4th sections of that book is carried over into the 2nd part of the anthropology lectures.

The situation, however, is not unique to Kant.

The first theory is that the fundamental activity of the mind, called "synthesis," is an activity of that applies certain to a previously given perceptual datum from experience.