The readiness and expectations questionnaire (REQ) assesses first-year students’ expectations and preparedness for their first year in university. This measurement instrument is useful for educational policy and curriculum development; it can also be used to predict the outcomes of the first year of college. This instrument was initially developed to compare students enrolled in programs in the Netherlands and New Zealand, with predominant populations of domestic students. However, the Bologna process and globalisation trends also have increased the availability of international degree programmes. This raised the question whether the REQ can be used to compare groups of international students. Therefore, this article aims to assess the cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the REQ in international bachelor degree programmes in economics and business in a Dutch university, taught in English. The results indicate that not all aspects of the instrument achieve measurement equivalence, but most of its scales, with some adaptations, can evaluate students’ expectations and preparedness and thus encourage a better match between student and institution.
Often intermediaries who are familiar with both cultures can be helpful incross-cultural communication situations. They can translate both the substance and themanner of what is said. For instance, they can tone down strong statements that would beconsidered appropriate in one culture but not in another, before they are given to peoplefrom a culture that does not talk together in such a strong way. They can also adjust thetiming of what is said and done. Some cultures move quickly to the point; others talkabout other things long enough to establish rapport or a relationship with the otherperson. If discussion on the primary topic begins too soon, the group that needs a"warm up" first will feel uncomfortable. A mediator or intermediary whounderstands this can explain the problem, and make appropriate procedural adjustments.
Cross cultural misunderstanding essays - …
Yet sometimes intermediaries can make communication even more difficult. If a mediatoris the same culture or nationality as one of the disputants, but not the other, this givesthe appearance of bias, even when none exists. Even when bias is not intended, it iscommon for mediators to be more supportive or more understanding of the person who is ofhis or her own culture, simply because they understand them better. Yet when the mediatoris of a third cultural group, the potential for cross-cultural misunderstandings increasesfurther. In this case engaging in extra discussions about the process and the manner ofcarrying out the discussions is appropriate, as is extra time for confirming andre-confirming understandings at every step in the dialogue or negotiating process.