According to Andrea Lunsford in her instructional book The Everyday Writer, these appeals can be broken down into three main types – logical, emotional and ethical.
In Martin Luther King’s essay “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” the paragraphs that have the most emotional appeal are, just as the critics say, paragraphs thirteen and fourteen.
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Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” is the paragraph that makes the strongest appeal to the reader’s emotions by providing vivid examples of how hatred, racism, and discrimination negatively affected the lives of African Americans.
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King tugs at the reader’s emotions in these specific paragraphs using very detailed examples about the difficult, heart-wrenching misfortunes that have happened to the African American society and what they had to endure on a daily basis in Birmingham by using metaphors, contrasts, alliteration, anaphora, and imagery....
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Many of those groups (such as the Anglo-Saxons and the Goths) left very little evidence behind in the way of complete mythologies, but in the Icelandic sagas and Old Norse tradition, we have extensive records of a mythology surrounding the Aesir and Vanir deities in the Poetic Edda. In these legends, the Germanic or Teutonic gods embodied in Old Norse were, as Tom Shippey states, "" (see Drout 449). Many 19th century scholars (and later Tolkien himself) explored whether this worldview was unique to the Norse, or whether it permeated the other branches of the Germanic tribes. Linguistic evidence suggested it did. For instance, the names of cognate deities appear in toponyms in Britain and continental Germany. Thus, the one-eyed all-father Odin in Old Norse has analogues in Woden in Anglo-Saxon and Wotan in pagan Germany, etc. On the other hand, the counter-argument was that similarities in names might not correspond with similarities in worldview. For example, just because Old English had the term Middan-Geard (Middle Earth), and Old Norse had Mithgarthr (Middle Earth), it does not necessarily follow that the Anglo-Saxons had an identical cosmology to the Vikings in which nine different worlds centered on the human one (See Shippey in Drout 449). Other evidence circumstantially was available in what the mythographers called "survivor-genres" (fairy tales, riddles, oral ballads, and nursery rhymes), and philologists argued that skilled investigators could recover or reconstruct missing parts of the lost mythoi from these later texts (449-450).
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DRAUGR, DRAUGAR (Old Norse, "phantom," related to PIE drowgos, "deceive"; plural form is draugar or draugur): Also called aptrgangr ("again-walkers"), draugar are undead beings from Old Norse, Icelandic, Faroese, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian mythology. Animated blood-drinking corpses, these monsters were either death-blue ("hel-blár") or "corpse-white" ("nár-fölr") in color. Folklore depicted them as superhumanly strong, foul-smelling, and vengeful. They enjoyed crushing or suffocating victims, as depicted in the Hrómundar Saga. They possessed a number of powers, most notably the ability to drive men or animals insane, to control weather, to prophesy, to increase their mass at will, and to turn into smoke or pass through rock. The oldest legends distinguished between sea-draugar (vengeful spirits of the drowned), land-draugar (types that wandered at night and often preyed on shepherds), and a third variation known as haugbui. The latter type lurked in , protecting the treasure-hoard buried therin. Any marginalized, evil, or unhappy person might become a draugr after death (especially those who were greedy or vengeful in life), but draugar were also infectious. Those they kill turn into draugar after death, as is the case in the story of Glam in Grettir's Saga and the story of the shepherd in the Eyrbyggja Saga. Along with vague Anglo-Saxon allusions to the (OE wiht), the Old Norse legends of draugar were Tolkien's primary inspiration for barrow-wights in The Lord of the Rings. Incidentally, in Nynorsk (modern Norwegian) translations of Tolkien's work, the word draugr is applied to the barrow-wights as well as to the Nazgûl ring-wraiths and the dead men of Dunharrow. Cf. , .