I. Literature Review: Communicative Competence and Goals of Teaching English As a Foreign Language
Quite by accident, I became wide aware of the failure of our teaching when I came across one of my former students in a photocopy room in Wuhan University. He, already a junior, majoring in English language and literature, was working on an application letter to a university in the United States. I was shocked to discover that he knew nothing about writing a letter. He even had no idea where he should put the address or what kind of salutation is appropriate, let alone how to phase the letter in a formal and sincere manner. Such knowledge is definitely included in some courses. The message conveyed here is that knowledge about language or even about the language use, complete or not, correct or not, is by no means adequate for our students. What knowledge is minimally adequate for a learner to be able to communicate in real context? What kind of awareness should be cultured (instead of being taught)? We will have some insight into these questions by examining the theories of language proficiency and communicative competence developed by linguists of different periods, though some of them are technically tentative and tangling.
II.2. Implications of Communicative Competence on English Language Teaching in General
The development of theories of communicative competence has manifested broad and in-depth impact on almost every aspect of the practice of language teaching including syllabus design, approach and methodology, material design, etc.. These theories provide guidelines to our teaching, but raise puzzles at the same time.
English as a Second Language Essay Sample
However, research has shown that many ESL students struggle to read and analyze academic texts not only due to cultural or linguistic differences between their native language (L1) and English (Bang and Zhao, 2007; Bell, 2007; Cheng, 2006), but also because they are either unaware of o...
ESL - English as a second language learning & teaching ESL
Learning English as a second language is a barrier that must be overcome if the student is expected to progress through the American education system and can have definite impacts on learning all other subjects, because if the student doesn’t have a mastery of English mechanics it effects the ability of that student to master other subject areas due to the language barrier....
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Language study dose not mean only the memorization of vocabulary and sentence structures with fair of pronunciation. But, it means more extensive than that. According to Freeman and Freeman (2004) stated that the written explanation of the components of language which one needs to know in order to teach language. In other words, the linguistic components for the learners and the teachers need to delve into are syntax (sentence structure), phonology (sound system), lexicon (vocabulary), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (usage). In fact, language learning is not only linguistic components. But it also has several sociolinguistic and psychological reasons, which can effect on the way that the learners learn second language.
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Languages can be taught and learned in many places, whether informal settings or, formal contexts, such as, classrooms, and regardless of the method used in teaching second language or foreign language the learners can achieve mastery in target language in different degrees. Second language development follows a developmental process and it resembles of the first language. Second language for adults is totally different than children, adults learners are often more critical of themselves and they have fears, while children do not have pervious experience. So, the adult learners can be affected by the type of language input as a result to their pervious experience ,and they can control its quantity and quality, meaning that they can either "tune out" the language if so desired, or they can seek opportunities to speed up the learning process. According to that Cummins (1988) has divided language skills into two major categories of proficiency. Firstly, Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) which is typically requires a few years to develop. In other words, the language learners are able to converse for daily life affairs and they can appear to be competent users of the language, and they can fluent and have the ability to respond to the concert stimuli. Secondly, Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP), (CALP) term refers to the ability and it can allow to the learner to discuss and study conceptual, academic, material in the second language.