When humans began to raze forests and use the resultant soils to raise crops, they were working their way down through the food chain, no longer harvesting ecosystem detritus but destroying entire ecosystems literally at their roots for short-term human benefit. That practice eventually turned forest ecosystems into deserts. As this essay will survey, that was a rampant problem in all early civilizations. Eventually, humans learned to reach even further back into the ecological horizon as they began burning energy stores that were hundreds of millions of years old; was first and second. They were burned a million times as fast as they were created. In all instances, humans were releasing sunlight energy that had been captured and stored by organisms. In the 20th century, when humans began using nuclear fission, they were going even further back in time and harvesting energy stored via billions of years ago. With each new energy source, humans were harvesting older, more concentrated energy sources, which released far more energy than the previously used source. In each instance, humans plundered the energy source to exhaustion. Humans have not lived in “harmony” with nature since they learned to control fire.
Complex life means, by definition, that it has many parts and they move. Complex life needs energy to run its many moving parts. Complexity’s dependence on greater levels of energy use not only applies to all organisms and ecosystems, but it has also applied to all human civilizations, as will be explored later in this essay. When cells became “complex” with organelles, a tiny observer inside that cell would have witnessed a bewildering display of activity, as mitochondria sailed through the cells via “scaffolding” on their energy generating missions, the ingestion of molecules for fuel and to create structures, the miracle of cellular division, the constant building, repair, and dismantling of cellular structures, and the ejection of waste through the cellular membrane. The movement of molecules and organelles in eukaryotic cells is accomplished by using the same protein that became muscle: actin. Prokaryotes used an , and their provide their main mode of travel, to usually move toward food and safety or away from danger, including predators.
Democracy is not the perfect system we have
As will be explored in this essay, all of the marine life have anoxia as a suspected contributing cause, so oxygen is a major area of interest among extinction specialists. Whether oxygen levels were also significant contributing causes of evolutionary innovation is another area of interest today. Again, to food chains. Even if the first animals did not respire anaerobically, they adapted to aerobic respiration early on and then became dependent on it. There would be no going back for animals; all except those few adapted to and anoxic environments went “all in” with aerobic respiration.