Europe was a crucible for violence probably ever since the human conquest of Neanderthals, and evidence for warfare and mass violence increases as the timeline progressed from then. But going back to those , violence is not instinctual as much as calculated, and is a response to economic scarcity above all else. However, those early religious rituals were not only a method to form group cohesion; they were also a way to condition men to throw their lives away while trying to take the lives of others. The rituals and rites of passage for men were often extremely painful ordeals that conditioned them for the short life of a warrior, and forming highly contrasting in-group/out-group beliefs that facilitated killing other people. The portion of the human brain where emotions appear to be seated, in the , is no larger than in our great ape cousins. It is well-known that fear shuts down the neocortex, as animals prepare for fight-or-flight responses, and it is no different with humans. However, the response is much more dramatic with humans, with their huge neocortexes and frontal lobes. So the human response to fear is losing much of what makes humans seemingly sentient. Those religious rituals seem designed to bypass the neocortex and form a bridge to the limbic system where emotions rule. Religion seems to have arisen as a to warfare, but that will be explored in the next chapter, which covers the civilizing of humanity, which is the .
As will be seen in this chapter, the spread of behaviorally modern humans closely coincided not only with the extinction of humans and primates that existed for hundreds of thousands and even millions of years, but virtually all of the world’s large animals went extinct almost when behaviorally modern humans arrived, all except those that had evolved alongside the human line for millions of years in Africa and Eurasia. Some vanished animals were among the most successful in Earth’s history.
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Before humans began to alter “natural” evolution with selective breeding, genetic engineering, and the like, has been largely thought to be the result of populations becoming genetically isolated, primarily through geographic isolation, and isolated populations continue to evolve and adapt to their environments. Eventually, the separated populations become separate species. Even , but the general concept is that if two sexually reproducing organisms can breed and produce fertile offspring, they are of the same species. In light of evolutionary theory, human races are simply genetically isolated populations that have evolved as they adapted to their environments, but all races can interbreed, so humanity is a single species. Recent DNA studies suggest that to northern climates, and white skin may be only six thousand years old, and are similarly new and developed in the same vicinity. As and subsequent Industrial Revolution have ended a great deal of genetic isolation, the adaptive differences seen in the races have been gradually disappearing as multiracial offspring have increased. If humanity attains the FE epoch, “” will disappear along with geographic isolation.
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To briefly revisit , men have always committed vastly more violence than women, were the primary hunters, and almost . In general, the higher women’s status, the healthier the society was. The people of Africa stayed isolated hunter-gatherers to the present day. Their , with its click sounds shared with other African groups, such as the last full-time hunter-gatherers left in Africa, the , probably sounded like the language that the founder group left with and has since been lost beyond Africa. Genetic testing has demonstrated that the and related groups remained in Africa when that founder group left, and their geographic isolation and warlike ways . Genetic testing also traced the migration path to Australia, and found peoples that stopped along the way, as part of a coastal migration that and maybe . One reason why the coastal route was probably the first was that it was warm and relatively easy. Around 60 kya, the global climate warmed a little. It was about before it began oscillating toward .
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The are positioned off the Malaysian coast. Sailors , as the natives killed anybody who landed and burned their bodies. The Andamans looked like African pygmies. The British established a penal colony on the Andaman Islands in the late 1700s, when about five thousand aboriginal Andamans lived on the main islands. The Andaman from the usual diseases, mayhem, and alcohol that Europeans brought with them, and they were nearly extinct within a century of British contact. . The genetic and other evidence has been used to make a convincing case that the aboriginal Andamans were island-dwarfed descendants of the original inhabitants. The Andaman Islands were never connected to the mainland, so the aborigines probably descended from people who stopped and stayed during that founder migration from Africa.