I’d rather dispense with the whole mess altogether and start afresh with a society of fully self-aware humans. Such societies existed you know, especially in Africa and the Americas before Western contact and colonialism. Guess which two kinds of societies suffered the most brutal, deliberate attempts at destruction or subjugation by Europeans and Americans throughout this country’s history beginning at least with Columbus (who encountered the Arawaks and figgered, what fine people; they’d make wonderful slaves)?
“Blacks became more valued because they survived the tropical climate and the psychological condition of slavery better than whites and Amerinds did.” In addition, it was much more difficult for black runaways to evade capture. In particular, in the southern mainland colonies, a white slave/indentured servant could walk 50 miles and establish his own farm on unclaimed land, and it would be quite difficult for an owner without a picture of the runaway to ever find him, let alone prove ownership in court. Any black not known to people in the vicinity as a freedman was probably a runaway from somewhere, so running away was virtually hopeless unless someone would help them hide and travel to somewhere out of reach of the slavecatchers.
Discovery, Exploration, Colonies, & Revolution
Surveys major trends in slavery for virtually every colony in Latin America, including Haiti and the Dutch Caribbean. Strong on Brazil. Examines free-black life, slave resistance, and certain cultural influences. Great for general readers, undergraduates, and advanced scholars. Contains a useful bibliographic essay. Spanish version available through the Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
Patrick Henry's "Give Me Liberty ..
Between the 1490s and the 1850s, Latin America, including the Spanish-speaking Caribbean and Brazil, imported the largest number of African slaves to the New World, generating the single-greatest concentration of black populations outside of the African continent. This pivotal moment in the transfer of African peoples was also a transformational time during which the interrelationships among blacks, Native Americans, and whites produced the essential cultural and demographic framework that would define the region for centuries. What distinguishes colonial Latin America from other places in the Western hemisphere is the degree to which the black experience was defined not just by slavery but by freedom. In the late 18th century, over a million blacks and mulattoes in the region were freedmen and women, exercising a tremendously wide variety of roles in their respective societies. Even within the framework of slavery, Latin America presents a special case. Particularly on the mainland, the forces of the market economy, the design of social hierarchies, the impact of Iberian legal codes, the influence of Catholicism, the demographic impact of Native Americans, and the presence of a substantial mixed-race population provided a context for slavery that would dictate a different course for black life than elsewhere. Thanks to the ways in which modern archives have been configured since the 19th century, and the nationalistic framework within which much research has been produced in the 20th and early 21st centuries, the vast literature examining Latin America’s black colonial past focuses upon geographic areas that correspond roughly to current national and regional borders. This is a partial distortion of the reality of the colonial world, where colonies were organized rather differently than what we see today. However, there are a number of valid reasons for adhering to a nationalist-centered framework in the organization of this bibliography, not the least of which is being able to provide crucial background material for exploring how black populations contributed to the development of certain nation-states, as well as for understanding how blacks may have benefited from, or been hurt by, the break between the colonial and nationalist regimes. Overall, the body of literature surveyed here speaks to several scholarly trends that have marked the 20th and early 21st centuries—the rise of the comparative slavery school, scholarship on black identity, queries into the nature of the African diaspora, assessments of the power wielded by marginalized populations, racial formation processes, creolization, and examinations of the sociocultural structures that governed colonial and early national life.
THE WRETCHED OF THE EARTH - Zero Anthropology
A lot of black anger seems to be directed at American culture on the basis that the English colonists appeared to have created racial slavery to specifically target blacks, and allowed it to persist in the creation of their new republic. One meme going around was that the Second Amendment was passed to give southerners a means to quell the frequent slave rebellions and not to give citizens a way to self-defend against tyranny or crime. This one largely seems to stem from the work of one Carl T. Bogus who, citing Zinn and Bellesiles to support his thesis, may actually live up to his name.