Mass extinction events may be the result of multiple ecosystem stresses that reach the level where the ecosystem unravels. Other than the meteor impact that destroyed the dinosaurs, the rest of the mass extinctions seem to have multiple contributing causes, and each one ultimately had an energy impact on life processes. The processes can be complex and scientists are only beginning to understand them. This essay will survey mass extinction events and their aftermaths in some detail, as they were critical junctures in the journey of life on Earth.
During the Cambrian Explosion, an ecosystem developed in which life on the sea floor, surface, and water column all interacted for the first time. All but one of were energy dynamics, as the environment provided either too much or too little energy, and the nutrient hypothesis () will be revisited numerous times in this essay. A lack of nutrients, mineral and otherwise, always meant that the energy-driven dynamics that delivered the nutrients were curtailed. If enough energy is properly applied, all nutrients can be abundant.
Uses of computer in daily life essay
, who had a scientific career at General Electric, also believed that the energy industry would welcome his solid-state FE device. He , expecting a tickertape parade. The opposite happened as shadowy interests destroyed his business deals, in a situation . Sparky did not take the hint and kept trying, which led to death threats. After their final threats, Sparky fled into hiding, where , and Sparky died the next week of a “heart attack.” Dying that way who played near Sparky’s level, and , and the event shortened his life. Dennis, Sparky, and many others like them lost their naïveté the hard way, but the field has been filled with newcomers who deny the reality of organized suppression as they charge forward with visions of riches and fame. It is perhaps the most common level of awareness where FE newcomers will be found. Most never develop anything worth suppressing so will never know any differently, and will enter and leave the field with that beginner's level of awareness intact. However, with enough people trying and either living to tell the tale, or others chronicling their dire fates, which , and the Internet spreading information like never before, few FE newcomers have much excuse for being unaware of the fates of their professional ancestors. The Internet is like the , or the , ratcheted up by a few orders of magnitude, and my website, this essay, and my comprise my attempt to take advantage of its potential.
WEEKLY ESSAY WRITING CHALLENGE - INSIGHTS
Ever since I was thrust into an soon after graduating from college, I became a student of wealth, poverty, and humanity’s problems. My of changing humanity’s energy paradigm have had a lifelong impact. It took me many years to gain a comprehensive understanding of how energy literally runs the world and always has. A good demonstration of that fact is to consider the average day of an average American professional, who is a member of and lives in Earth’s most industrialized nation. A typical day in my life during the winter before I wrote this essay can serve as an example.
WEEKLY ESSAY CHALLENGES – 2015
But the branch of the that readers might find most interesting led to humans. Humans are in the phylum, and the last common ancestor that founded the Chordata phylum is still a mystery and understandably a source of controversy. Was our ancestor a ? A ? Peter Ward made the case, as have others for a long time, that it was the sea squirt, also called a tunicate, which in its larval stage resembles a fish. The nerve cord in most bilaterally symmetric animals runs below the belly, not above it, and a sea squirt that never grew up may have been our direct ancestor. Adult tunicates are also highly adapted to extracting oxygen from water, even too much so, with only about 10% of today’s available oxygen extracted in tunicate respiration. It may mean that tunicates adapted to low oxygen conditions early on. Ward’s respiration hypothesis, which makes the case that adapting to low oxygen conditions was an evolutionary spur for animals, will repeatedly reappear in this essay, as will . Ward’s hypothesis may be proven wrong or will not have the key influence that he attributes to it, but it also has plenty going for it. The idea that fluctuating oxygen levels impacted animal evolution has been gaining support in recent years, particularly in light of recent reconstructions of oxygen levels in the eon of complex life, called and , which have yielded broadly similar results, but their variances mean that much more work needs to be performed before on the can be done, if it ever can be. Ward’s basic hypotheses is that when oxygen levels are high, ecosystems are diverse and life is an easy proposition; when oxygen levels are low, animals adapted to high oxygen levels go extinct and the survivors are adapted to low oxygen with body plan changes, and their adaptations helped them dominate after the extinctions. The has a pretty wide range of potential error, particularly in the early years, and it also tracked atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The challenges to the validity of a model based on data with such a wide range of error are understandable. But some broad trends are unmistakable, as it is with other models, some of which are generally declining carbon dioxide levels, some huge oxygen spikes, and the generally relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which a geochemist would expect. The high carbon dioxide level during the Cambrian, of at least 4,000 PPM (the "RCO2" in the below graphic is a ratio of the calculated CO2 levels to today's levels), is what scientists think made the times so hot. (Permission: Peter Ward, June 2014)