This thesis contributes to the development of tools and methods for assessing sustainability and applies them to an assessment of the Swedish sugar production system. The thesis’ aims are to compile an overview of the existing approaches for assessing sustainability, to suggest a method(s) for structuring and analyzing complex sustainability issues, and to appraise sustainability impacts from Swedish sugar production. The sugar sector analyses uncovered a number of regional to global sustainability challenges stemming from the production system.? An analysis using an integrated assessment model calculated the impacts for a number of social and ecological indicators accompanying the ongoing decrease in the sugar production quota and beet and sugar prices for Sweden. A GIS-based proximity analysis tool was used to calculate beet transport distances. Distance results are then used to estimate diesel fuel consumption and air emissions for five pollutants during the movement of beets from field to processing facility.

Describe And Evaluate What Pfizer Is Doing Free Essays

Bio: Dr. Rafols works on the mapping of interdisciplinary fields and emergent technologies such as biotech or nanotech, combining scientometrics, network analyses and qualitative approaches. The goal of his research is to improve transparency and plurality in technology assessment and foresight, and in evaluations of scientific organisations. Dr. Rafols serves as Editorial Advisor in the journal Scientometrics. His research work has been published in Research Policy, Scientometrics, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, and so forth. Dr. Rafols started his career in physics then pursues a specialisation in statistical physics and complex systems which eventually led him to conduct research in cell and developmental biology combining experimental approaches and mathematical modelling (PhD, Tohoku Univ). Afterwards, he came to SPRU to undertake an MS in Science and Technology Policy and shortly after joined the faculty. Since 2012, he became a research fellow at INGENIO (CSIC-UPV). He was awarded an EU postdoctoral Marie Curie fellowship and Ramon y Cajal Fellowship.

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Patent thickets, defensive patenting, and induced R&D: an empirical analysis of the costs and potential benefits of fragmentation in patent ownership

A Brief of Profile:
Eniola Fabusoro is an agro-sociologist and presently a Visiting Associate Professor at the University of Tokyo. With an agricultural background, he is more interested in research on rural sociology and development issues and has good experience of rural situation and pastoral livelihoods in other parts of Africa, particularly countries of west, central and east Africa. He is a two times grantee of the International Foundation for Science (IFS) and a Fellow of Agriculture for Peace in Africa of the United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies, Japan. He has special interest in issues relating to property rights, social dynamics and collective action, conflict management and transformation, development communication, spatial factors in livelihoods analysis, natural resource use, among others. He works permanently for the department of agricultural extension and rural development, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

The empirical analysis carried out in ..

Rare disorders is the name of diseases, with varied etiology and low-prevalence for the majority of which there is no treatment available. About 5,000 identified diseases are classed as "orphan" due to the absence of response in terms of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Drug development for these diseases has been limited by a lack of understanding of the pathophysiology mechanisms and the prohibitive cost of investing in a novel drug with poor market potential. Orphan drugs (OD) is the term quoted to those drugs intended for the treatment of rare diseases and which qualify as drugs scientifically viable but not viable from an economic point. To encourage the development of such drugs for rare syndromes, OD legislation was put in place in the European Union (EU) in 2000 and were inspired from the US model where an OD legislation dates back to 1983. Today, with the assignment of more than 500 OD designations by the FDA and EMEA, these incentives have contributed to the development of many innovative biotechnology products. While the EU OD act is encompassing its 10th anniversary in 2010, we might ask if the OD market exclusivity provision was the strongest of ODA incentives? Indeed ODs give opportunities for pharma firms moving into more niche designations away from mass market at a time, the blockbuster business model have troubles constraining Big Pharma companies to find new markets & sources of profits. The increased availability of OD with their high cost raises debate surrounding their affordability & cost-effectiveness, & so their public funding by national health services & innovation systems.