Privatdozent Heidegger, in his second year of lecturing, examines how phenomenology, as a strict science, should approach the factical experience of life. Phenomenology should investigate factical life, in order to uncover the ground, "original science", of factical life. Factical life provides phenomenology with access, so that phenomenology can investigate that ground. By investigating through factical life, phenomenology can investigate the experience of life without objectifying it, as a science might. For examples of life experiences, Heidegger refers to Stephan George's poem "The Tapestry of Life", to , and to everday situations. He says that philosophers need to be evaluated with phenomelogy, and interpreted with respect to the ground of factical life. The works of Kant, Hegel, "those from Marburg", Bergson, William James, must be reckoned with.
The science Aristotle has described--the science that observes beings as beings--he calls First Philosophy. But first philosophy does not only contemplate beings in their beingness; it also contemplates that being which corresponds to beingness in all purity: the supreme being. This being, , the divine, is also with a curious ambiguity called "Being." First philosophy, ontology, is also the theology of what truly is. It should more accurately be called theiology. The science of beings as such is in itself onto-theological.
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Given Popper’s personal history and background, it is hardlysurprising that he developed a deep and abiding interest in social andpolitical philosophy. However, it is worth emphasising that his angleof approach to these fields is through a consideration of the natureof the social sciences which seek to describe and explicate themsystematically, particularly history. It is in this context that heoffers an account of the nature of scientific prediction, which inturn allows him a point of departure for his attack upontotalitarianism and all its intellectual supports, especially holismand historicism. In this context holism is to be understood as theview that human social groupings are greater than the sum of theirmembers, that such groupings are ‘organic’ entities intheir own right, that they act on their human members and shape theirdestinies, and that they are subject to their own independent laws ofdevelopment. Historicism, which is closely associated with holism, isthe belief that history develops inexorably and necessarily accordingto certain principles or rules towards a determinate end (as forexample in the dialectic of Hegel, which was adopted and implementedby Marx). The link between holism and historicism is that the holistbelieves that individuals are essentially formed by the socialgroupings to which they belong, while the historicist—who isusually also a holist—holds that we can understand such a socialgrouping only in terms of the internal principles which determine itsdevelopment.
How to do Philosophy – Paul Graham
every man, both from a deriv’d corruption, innate and born withhim, and from his breeding and converse with men, is very subject toslip into all sorts of errors … These being the dangers in theprocess of humane Reason, the remedies of them all can only proceedfrom the real, the mechanical, the experimental Philosophy[experiment-based science]. (1665, cited in Harrison 2009: 5)
an essay about philosophy - Paul Graham
The link between Popper’s theory of knowledge and his socialphilosophy is his fallibilism—just as we make theoreticalprogress in science by deliberately subjecting our theories tocritical scrutiny, and abandoning those which have been falsified, sotoo, Popper holds, the critical spirit can and should be sustained atthe social level. More specifically, the open society can be broughtabout only if it is possible for the individual citizen to evaluatecritically the consequences of the implementation of governmentpolicies, which can then be abandoned or modified in the light of suchcritical scrutiny—in such a society, the rights of theindividual to criticise administrative policies will be formallysafeguarded and upheld, undesirable policies will be eliminated in amanner analogous to the elimination of falsified scientific theories,and differences between people on social policy will be resolved bycritical discussion and argument rather than by force. The opensociety as thus conceived of by Popper may be defined as ‘anassociation of free individuals respecting each other’s rights withinthe framework of mutual protection supplied by the state, andachieving, through the making of responsible, rational decisions, agrowing measure of humane and enlightened life’ (Levinson, R.B.In Defense of Plato, 17). As such, Popper holds, it is not autopian ideal, but an empirically realised form of social organisationwhich, he argues, is in every respect superior to its (real orpotential) totalitarian rivals. But he does not engage in a moraldefence of the ideology of liberalism; rather his strategy is the muchdeeper one of showing that totalitarianism is typically based uponhistoricist and holist presuppositions, and of demonstrating thatthese presuppositions are fundamentally incoherent.