For the mature Kant, all the motives but the first fall short morally, since goodhearted impulse is not a matter of will and determination but of feelings that may be accidential and irrational, appearances of honor may have no moral or prudential connection at all, and self-interested prudence may reject immoral action as merely inexpedient -- or embrace it as the opposite.
Rather, I am thinking of the second sense of the type. The artist is an aesthete. Whereas is a set of skills that may be acquired through practice, aesthetic awareness must be cultivated by a difficult discipline. It requires a certain habit of mind that is quite different from ordinary awareness. It is a sensitivity to the subtleties of beauty and sensual pleasure. It is a familiarity with the positive and negative aspects of stimulation, and an appreciation of the necessity of both forms. Whereas the artist as craftsman might produce a religious object of devotion, the artist as aesthete is diametrically opposed to the believer.
A philosophical iconoclast, Popper has a stored intellectual past.
On this principle, our author characterizes the exclusion of women from the elective franchise as indefensible in principle, and standing on no better ground than any other arbitrary disqualification.
(1′) Hold agents responsible for their actions.
At the same time, the harsh certainty of an autodidact and self-made person, and the high handed authoritarian manner of Rand's personality, worked against her case, her cause, and her life.
(2′) Evaluate and “rank” the motives for whichagents act.
Yet Nietzsche also does not confine his criticisms of morality to someone religiously, philosophically, socially or historicallycircumscribed example. Thus, it will not suffice to say that he simplyattacks Christian or Kantian or European or utilitarian morality— though he certainly at times attacks all of these. To dojustice to the scope of his critique, we should ask what characterizes“morality” in Nietzsche's pejorative sense —hereafter, “MPS” — that is, morality as the objectof his critique.
He might at least have read magazines.
In contrast to the believer is the artist. (I am referring here, of course, to ideal types, in the manner of the great German social scientist, Max Weber.) The artist is an exemplar of courage. Creativity requires a boldness and fortitude that can be fruitfully applied to everyday living. The artist must have a scientific rationalityin the sense of using experimentation to discoverotherwise, his work will be insipid or trite. This rationality brings one, also, to a new manner of living in the moment. It engenders a skepticism that reduces the shrill hysteria of these henchmen of the Spectacle to background hiss. Thus, one can concentrate on the humanizing qualities of beauty and pleasure. In this way, true morality is possible.
It takes somewhat better knowledge to know about James J.
At the same time, the Nietzschean inspiration that evidently is behind her "virtue of selfishness" approach to ethics seems to have embarrassed her later: She very properly realized that, since the free market is built upon exchanges, capitalism requires firm moral limits, ruling out violence, coercion, fraud, etc.
Albro Martin, , Oxford University Press, 1992).
The artist as an ideal type has two meanings, and it is important to distinguish between them. The first refers to a kind of person who produces artthat is, paints a painting, writes a poem, composes a musical piece, and so forth. This is the artist as a technician, someone who is skilled in , or craft of artistic design. When I refer to the artist, this is not the meaning I have in mind.