Fanny Alger was a teen-aged servant in the Smith's home. Joseph and Emma had "adopted" Fanny when she was about 16 years old (1833). She is believed to be either Joseph Smith's first polygamous "wife" or simply a sexual encounter. (The Church's essay, "Plural Marriage in Kirtland and Nauvoo," says it was a marriage, whereas Lawrence Foster said, "…contemporary evidence strongly suggests that Smith sustained sexual relations with Fanny Alger, it does not indicate that this was viewed either by Smith himself or by his associates at the time as a 'marriage.'" Dialogue Vol. 33 No. 1 pp. 184-86.) Critics believe he had an affair with her, was found out, and then introduced the concept of plural marriage in order to justify and continue his affair with her and then other women.Some historians record the date of the "marriage" as early as 1833, while others believe it was 1835, putting Fanny's age anywhere from 17-19. Fanny departed the Smith home sometime in 1836, the same year Oliver Cowdery was excommunicated for revealing Joseph Smith's "dirty, nasty, filthy affair of his and Fanny Alger's."Warren Parrish, the secretary of Joseph for a period of time, told Benjamin Johnson that he and Oliver Cowdery knew the report of an affair between Joseph and the girl to be true, for they "were spied upon and found together." (, 1903.)Critic's Note: Regardless of whether Joseph Smith's relations with Fanny Alger was merely a sexual encounter or a "marriage," it was adulterous. However, Joseph could only be , and even if it is claimed that the "marriage" was a symbolic "celestial only" sealing, the sealing power was not restored until April 1836, after Joseph's "marriage" to Fanny.Whether Joseph's "marriage" to Fanny Alger occurred in 1833 or 1835, it was illegal both under the laws of the land and under any theory of divine authority. Plural marriages are rooted in the notion of "sealing" for time and eternity. It is claimed that the "sealing power" was restored 3 April 1836 when Elijah appeared to Joseph and committed the sealing keys into his hands. (, The Joseph Smith Papers.) Until that time no one on earth had authority to "seal" Joseph and Fanny. As a result, his marriage to her was a nullity from the beginning both in time and eternity, and any sexual relationship he had with her was adulterous.As admitted in the LDS essay, "Plural Marriage in Kirtland and Nauvoo":
[C]areful estimates put the number [of Joseph Smith's wives] between 30 and 40.Following his marriage to Louisa Beaman and before he married other single women, Joseph Smith was sealed to a number of women who were already married.Estimates of the number of these sealings range from 12 to 14.from the LDS website (also see footnote #24).In other words, Joseph "married" or was "sealed" to 12-14 women who were already legally wedded to other men at the time. Following is a list of Joseph's wives that we know of (some researchers estimate that the number may have been higher). A name indicated with an * was a living husband of the woman to whom Joseph Smith was "married" (From the website, )(The above table can be downloaded as a .)
The problem with the above quote is that it has footnote 45 which says to see footnote 6 of the essay "Plural Marriage and Families in Early Utah" which we have referenced above. So what is it: "Plural marriage did result in an increased number of children born to believing parents" or "Studies have shown that monogamous women bore more children per wife than did polygamous wives except the first."
Warning Signs on Italicize Block Quotes In An Essay You Need To Know
According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality"(Foulkes 184), though
According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects ofpersonality" (184).
Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality"(Foulkes 184)?
Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / That's all Iremember" (11-12).
Place quotations longer than four typed lines in a free-standing block oftypewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indentedone inch from the left margin, and maintain double-spacing. Your parenthetical citationshould come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original linebreaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
Ralph and the other boys finally realize the horror of their actions:
The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for
the first time on the island; great shuddering spasms of grief that seemed
to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the
burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little
boys began to shake and sob too. (Golding 186)
Elizabeth Bishop's "In the Waiting Room" is rich in evocative detail:
It was winter. It got dark
early. The waiting room
was full of grown-up people,
arctics and overcoats,
lamps and magazines. (6-10)
Essay Writing Essentials - English Program - CSU …
Use ellipsis marks ( . . . ) at the beginning and end of quotations only if necessary. It is not always necessary to do so, and too many will damage the flow of your essay. Use them sparingly.
Quotes for Elementary School Yearbook and Tips | …
When using MLA format, follow the author-page method of citation. Thismeans that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation is takenmust appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear in your works-cited list(see below). The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parenthesesfollowing the quotation, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses,never in the text of your sentence.
Freud states that "a dream is the fulfillment of awish" (154).
Some argue that "a dream is the fulfillment of awish" (Freud 154).
Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which aquotation is taken. For instance, if more than one author has the same last name, it isnecessary to provide the author's initials (or even her or his full name if differentauthors share initials) in your citation. If you cite more than one work by a particularauthor, it is necessary to include a shortened title for the particular work from whichyou are quoting.
The Romantic poets demonstrate a concern with the fleeting nature of life:"'My name
is Ozymandias, king of kinds: / Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!' / Nothing
beside remains" (P.B. Shelley, "Ozymandias" ll. 10-12); and "Theflower that smiles
to-day / To-morrow dies" (P. B. Shelley, "Mutability" ll. 1-2).
Some gothic novels feature a character who is in the throes of "the violenceof his feelings"
and "the dark tyranny of despair" (M. W. Shelley, Frankenstein 12).
To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or threelines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks andincorporate it into your text. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the caseof verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference in theworks-cited list. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appearafter the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appearwithin the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after theparenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.