At this juncture, I will ask my readers to perform an exercise that I first saw described by Peak Oil advocate , which is to lay aside data and graphs and just think about how energy makes everything in our daily lives possible. Think about your food, water, mode of transportation, and materials that comprise your home and possessions, and think of the role that energy played in providing them. Think about the energy that you use each day in powering your home and in your transportation, even if it is just walking. Then imagine running out of energy. When you flipped on a light switch, nothing happened. When you turned on the tap, no water came out. Your refrigerator stopped working, food deliveries to your community ceased, and no electricity, oil, gas, coal, or even wind or water power was available. Everything in your life would come to a sudden halt. When people have tried to demote energy below spirituality, social relations, or even made it irrelevant to economics, my question is for them to see what they can forego the longest: prayer/meditation, social interaction, sex, or energy. The fossil fuels burned to power industrial civilization provide several hundred energy slaves for each American and no less than hundreds per person in every industrialized nation. All that those energy-leveraged humans do is direct the energy, like holding the reins of a gigantic beast that each person rides each day. Airline pilots half-joke that they begin their workday by strapping jet airliners to their waists. Without that energy to direct in the myriad ways that industrialized humans use it, modern civilization would come to an abrupt end.
The Andamans are members of a racial group called , which appear to be remnant populations of the original migration from Africa. They all survived in marginal environments where they subsisted as hunter-gatherers, while later agricultural immigrants dominated arable lands. About 50 kya, a few thousand years before the migration to Australia happened, the sea level was lower and the islands of , , and formed a contiguous peninsula today called . , Australia, and were also connected and formed a continent today called . Deep water lay between those two “lost continents,” and biologists drew lines between them that noted the distribution of animals and plants that did not cross open water. is farthest north, followed by , and is farthest south. Those lines mark the limits of migrations from Sundaland toward Sahul, which followed sea level changes. About 48-46 kya, behaviorally modern humans crossed the water in boats to Sahul, and the peoples of New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania largely lived in isolation until Europeans arrived. Those peoples have remnants in their DNA, which probably means that they interbred with them while driving them to extinction on Sundaland and Southeast Asia, before some migrated to Sahul. Aboriginal Australian isolation was almost certainly maintained in the way that Andaman Islanders did it: by killing strange peoples who came ashore. However, in 2012, a paper was published regarding evidence of contact about four kya with people probably from India, when the , , and some Indian DNA admixture were introduced into Australia, which seems related to a colonization of northern Australia by an immigrant population. More of those kinds of migrations of human DNA, technology, and domesticated species have yet to be discovered, and some may even be significant.
SparkNotes: Beowulf: Important Quotations Explained
Among other regrets is the replacement of the original LP album covers, which boastedattractive, innovative and thematically appropriate graphics, type and layouts. Some hadeye-grabbing shots of Lenny in hyperkinetic action or more formal portraits of the proudorchestra and its leader; others added visual beauty to the musical contents, such as aRenoir oil for a Debussy collection; yet others provided a touch of whimsy: three similarportraits of Napoleon, Beethoven and Bernstein for Beethoven's , ora closeup of a target painted on an apple for a collection featuring Rossini's . The Royal Edition, though, substitutes a layout which, whileattractive, becomes boring in its bland uniformity. Worse, the royal watercolors, evenapart from their artistic vacuity, have nothing whatever to do with the music. Indeed,many of the matches go beyond random and seem downright perverse: a placid marsh forStravinsky's ferocious , frigid mountains for Mahler's pastoral , or, worst of all, a phallic tower for Verdi's .