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Another evolutionary concept is that all changes had mechanical reasons for happening (again, today’s science has ), and each mechanical change required some purpose in improving an organism’s chances of surviving to reproduce, or at least not have unduly impaired it. As evolution progressed, for each species, it was like taking a road, and the farther down the road a species went in its development, the “lifestyle” opportunities that its biological operation created precluded other kinds of styles. For instance, trees will never become . Trees went down the path of roots, , growing taller than their neighbors, and the like. A plant cannot choose locomotion as a way of life. It does not generate enough energy for it, for one thing. Animals went down a very different evolutionary path than plants did, and muscles, brains, livers, and the like have no analogy in plants and, by themselves, plants will not grow muscles or brains anytime soon, although humans have been making radical changes in animals over brief periods of time, such as the many breeds of dog.

The Christmas tree: Pagan origins, Christian adaptation and secular status

This essay is intended to draw a comprehensive picture of life on Earth, the human journey, and energy's role. The references that support this essay are usually to works written for non-scientists or those of modest academic achievement so that non-scientists can study the same works without needing specialized scientific training. I am trying to in a tiny fraction of the global population. . My hope is that the energy issue can become that tiny fraction's focus. Properly educated, that group might be able to help catalyze an energy effort that can overcome the obstacles. That envisioned group may help humanity in many ways, but my primary goal is manifesting those technologies in the public sphere in a way that nobody risks life or livelihood. I have seen too many wrecked and prematurely ended lives (, ) and plan to avoid those fates, for both myself and the group’s members.


Why Schools Don't Educate - The Natural Child Project

The End of History? - Francis Fukuyama

So far in this essay, mammals have received scant attention, but the mammals’ development before the Cenozoic is important for understanding their rise to dominance. The , called , first , about 260 mya, and they had key mammalian characteristics. Their jaws and teeth were markedly different from those of other reptiles; their teeth were specialized for more thorough chewing, which extracts more energy from food, and that was likely a key aspect of success more than 100 million years later. Cynodonts also developed a secondary palate so that they could chew and breathe at the same time, which was more energy efficient. Cynodonts eventually ceased the reptilian practice of continually growing and shedding teeth, and their specialized and precisely fitted teeth rarely changed. Mammals replace their teeth a . Along with tooth changes, jawbones changed roles. Fewer and stronger bones anchored the jaw, which allowed for stronger jaw musculature and led to the mammalian (clench your teeth and you can feel your masseter muscle). Bones previously anchoring the jaw were no longer needed and . The jaw’s rearrangement led to the most auspicious proto-mammalian development: . Mammals had relatively large brains from the very beginning and it was probably initially . Mammals are the only animals with a , which eventually led to human intelligence. As dinosaurian dominance drove mammals to the margins, where they lived underground and emerged to feed at night, mammals needed improved senses to survive, and auditory and olfactory senses heightened, as did the mammalian sense of touch. Increased processing of stimuli required a larger brain, and . In humans, only livers use more energy than brains. Cynodonts also had , which suggest that they were warm-blooded. Soon after the Permian extinction, a cynodont appeared that may have ; it was another respiratory innovation that served it well in those low-oxygen times, functioning like pump gills in aquatic environments.